The Fuel Analysis, Comparison & Integration Tool (FACIT) provides interactive access to data and information generated from a comparative analysis conducted from 2015-2016. The study evaluated relevant environmental impacts associated with production, distribution, and use of multiple fuels used in cookstoves, while also considering social and economic factors. FACIT allows users to visually compare impacts and trade-offs of different fuels used to provide energy for cooking. Stakeholders involved in making decisions related to optimizing the fuel value chain should find this tool particularly useful. The tool should be used in parallel with the full report analysis and findings, which can viewed under the Resources tab below. The study was conducted in coordination with a companion study completed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (EPA/600/R-15/325).


Tool Overview

Three primary categories of indicators assessed within the study are available to explore. Click the links below to learn more about each indicator.

To begin, click the Next arrow or use the tabs to select the Country and Fuels of Interest. You are encouraged to visit the Resources tab to access the full report and other related tools. FACIT provides a visual snapshot of the results from the Alliance-funded report “Comparative Analysis of Fuels for Cooking: Life Cycle Environmental Impacts and Economic and Social Considerations.” The full report and detailed information on the methodology, assumptions, limitations, and references used to derive these results are available under the Resources tab.

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Firewood: Wood is still a major source of biomass energy for people in developing countries. In the context of cooking, the term 'wood fuel' is also used and refers to any energy source that comes from woody biomass. Fuelwood, or firewood, consists of any unprocessed woody biomass used to fuel a small fire, most often for cooking or warmth. Firewood is typically combusted in a low efficiency traditional stove.

Charcoal briquettes from wood: Charcoal is charred wood, which has lost all moisture and most volatile contents in the production process. It is an energy-dense, light-weight, easy-to-handle, and convenient fuel, which burns without producing much visible smoke other than during lighting. These properties make it a preferred fuel especially in urban areas. However, there can be significant energy losses and emissions during charcoal production processes at the kiln.

Charcoal briquettes from bamboo: Charcoal is charred material, which has lost all moisture and most volatile contents in the production process. It is an energy-dense, light-weight, easy-to-handle, and convenient fuel, which burns without producing much visible smoke other than during lighting. These properties make it a preferred fuel especially in urban areas. However, there can be significant energy losses and emissions during charcoal production processes at the kiln. Charcoal, typically produced from wood, may also be produced from bamboo. Bamboo is a fast growing and renewable feedstock choice.

Non carbonized briquettes from sawdust: Non-carbonized briquettes are processed biomass material, which may be derived from sawdust. Processed biomass fuels like non-carbonized briquettes from sawdust are an increasingly common fuel source in developing countries. Non-carbonized briquettes can typically be used with many improved biomass stoves.

Non carbonized briquettes from crop residues: Non-carbonized briquettes are processed biomass material, which may be derived from crop residues. Crop residues, including include straws, stems, stalks, leaves, husks, shells, peels, etc., are the non-edible plant parts that are left in the field after harvest and excess residues are increasingly being viewed as a valuable resource. Processed biomass fuels like non-carbonized briquettes from crop residues are an increasingly common fuel source in developing countries. Non-carbonized briquettes can typically be used with many improved biomass stoves.

Wood pellets: Wood pellets are densified woody material. Processed biomass fuels like wood pellets are an increasingly common fuel source in developing countries. Pellets can typically be used with many improved biomass stoves.

Wood chips: Wood chips are processed woody material. Processed biomass fuels like wood chips are an increasingly common fuel source in developing countries. Wood chips can typically be used with many improved biomass stoves.

Ethanol from sugarcane: Ethanol is a clean liquid biofuel that can be made from a variety of feedstocks including sugar cane. Ethanol may be directly produced from sugarcane processing, or may be produced from molasses, a co-product of sugar production. Ethanol is a globally traded commodity.

Ethanol from wood: Ethanol is a clean liquid biofuel that can be made from a variety of feedstocks. Many new feedstocks are under development, such as ethanol from sawdust. This study uses ethanol from forest residues as a surrogate for ethanol from sawdust. Ethanol is a globally traded commodity.

Biogas from dung: Biogas is a methane rich gas produced through the anaerobic (without air) digestion of organic wastes. It can be generated from animal and kitchen wastes, as well as some crop residues. This study investigates biogas from cattle dung produced in small scale household digesters. For cooking, biogas can be used directly in conventional low-pressure gas burners.

LPG: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a comparatively clean-burning, portable, sustainable, and efficient fuel. LPG is a co-product of natural gas and crude oil production and usually consists of a mixture of propane and butane for standard heating and cooking purposes. Its unique properties make it a versatile energy source – it is a multi-purpose energy source with many applications, is portable, and can be used virtually anywhere in the world.

Kerosene: Kerosene, also called paraffin in some countries, is a liquid product of crude oil with a high energy density. Kerosene is widely used in urban households for cooking, heating, and lighting. However, the World Health Organization discourages household use of kerosene, because of the high risk of burns, poisoning, and deaths.

Natural Gas: Natural gas is extracted and modeled as transported via long-distance pipeline. Consumers need to be connected to a natural gas pipeline to use this fuel choice. Natural gas is a comparatively clean-burning, sustainable, and efficient fuel.

DME: Dimethyl ether (DME) is a product of coal gasification, and is available in gaseous form in bottles. DME can be combusted in traditional gas stoves.

Hard coal: Coal is a black, solid, carbon-rich material found underground and is among the most prevalent fossil fuels. In the household energy sector, coal is used for cooking and heating in countries with abundant coal resources.

Electricity: Electricity is clean and efficient at the point of use. The overall lifecycle cleanliness and efficiency depends on the energy source (e.g. coal, gas, hydropower, nuclear, oil, solar, wind). Using electricity for cooking requires connection to the country's grid system, which varies widely between rural and urban areas in developing countries.

Crop residue: Crop residues, including include straws, stems, stalks, leaves, husks, shells, peels, etc., are the non-edible plant parts that are left in the field after harvest and excess residues are increasingly being viewed as a valuable resource. In the developing world, most crop residues that are used for fuel are in their natural state with some minimal pre-treatment like manual drying and cutting. Unprocessed crop residues are typically combusted in a low efficiency traditional stove.

Dung cake: The dung of stall fed animals (e.g. cattle and buffaloes) are converted into dung cake by mixing the manually collected dung with the residual feed (e.g., straw, wood chips). Dung cake is typically combusted in a low efficiency traditional mud stove.


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Results Summary

View Current Fuel Use Mix
Firewood; Charcoal briquettes from wood; Charcoal briquettes from bamboo; Non carbonized briquettes from sawdust; Non carbonized briquettes from crop residues; Wood pellets; Wood chips; Ethanol from sugarcane; Ethanol from wood; Biogas from dung; LPG; Kerosene; Natural Gas; DME; Hard coal; Electricity; Crop residue; Dung cake;

Environmental indicator and affordability results are on the basis of energy delivered for cooking in megajoules (MJ) per household per year. Households in China consume on average 13.6 MJ for cooking per day, which equates to 4,954 MJ per year) [Zhou et al. 2007]. Study Report Citations Environmental indicator and affordability results are on the basis of energy delivered for cooking in megajoules (MJ) per household per year. Households in India consume on average 11.0 MJ for cooking per day, which equates to 4,015 MJ per year) [Habib et al. 2004]. Study Report Citations Environmental indicator and economic affordability results are on the basis of energy delivered for cooking in megajoules (MJ) per household per year. Households in Bangladesh consume on average 6.19 MJ for cooking per day, which equates to 2,259 MJ per year) [USAID 2013]. Study Report Citations Environmental indicator and economic affordability results are on the basis of energy delivered for cooking in megajoules (MJ) per household per year. Households in Uganda consume on average 16.3 MJ for cooking per day, which equates to 5,953 MJ per year) [BMWi 2009, Uganda 2014]. Study Report Citations Environmental indicator and economic affordability results are on the basis of energy delivered for cooking in megajoules (MJ) per household per year. Households in Kenya consume on average 12.5 MJ for cooking per day, which equates to 4,563 MJ per year) [IEA 2014 Africa Energy Outlook, GVEP 2012a]. Study Report Citations Environmental indicator and economic affordability results are on the basis of energy delivered for cooking in megajoules (MJ) per household per year. Households in Nigeria consume on average 44.1 MJ for cooking per day, which equates to 16,086 MJ per year) [IEA Africa Energy Outlook 2014 Accenture 2011]. Study Report Citations Environmental indicator and economic affordability results are on the basis of energy delivered for cooking in megajoules (MJ) per household per year. Households in Ghana consume on average 13.6 MJ for cooking per day, which equates to 4,964 MJ per year) [IEA 2014 Africa Energy Outlook, GVEP 2012c]. Study Report Citations Environmental indicator and economic affordability results are on the basis of energy delivered for cooking in megajoules (MJ) per household per year. Households in Guatemala consume on average 42.8 MJ for cooking per day, which equates to 15,637 MJ per year) [Energía Sin Fronteras 2013]. Study Report Citations

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Environmental Results

Select an indicator chart to display and click Create Chart. Compare trade-offs among indicators by clicking "View All Charts." Charts displayed are interactive. Use the chart legend to control display of life cycle stage by clicking on life cycle stages, hover over a data point to view a specific value, click and drag your pointer to zoom in on a data bar, and/or click in the upper right corner of the chart to expand menu options to export charts to a variety of file formats.







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N/S = Not Studied

Economic Results

Select an indicator chart to display and click Create Chart. Compare trade-offs among indicators by clicking "View All Charts." Charts displayed are interactive. Use the chart legend to control display of data series (if applicable), hover over a data point to view a specific value, click and drag your pointer to zoom in on a data bar, and/or click in the upper right corner of the chart to expand menu options to export charts to a variety of file formats.






View All Charts
N/D = No Data

DRAFT environmental sustainability data are available for additional fuels for India and China resulting from a companion study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA study is expected to be finalized and published in early 2016. At this time, an analysis of corresponding economic and social/gender data has not occurred.

Firewood: Wood is still a major source of biomass energy for people in developing countries. In the context of cooking, the term 'wood fuel' is also used and refers to any energy source that comes from woody biomass. Fuelwood, or firewood, consists of any unprocessed woody biomass used to fuel a small fire, most often for cooking or warmth. Firewood is typically combusted in a low efficiency traditional stove.

Charcoal briquettes from wood: Charcoal is charred wood, which has lost all moisture and most volatile contents in the production process. It is an energy-dense, light-weight, easy-to-handle, and convenient fuel, which burns without producing much visible smoke other than during lighting. These properties make it a preferred fuel especially in urban areas. However, there can be significant energy losses and emissions during charcoal production processes at the kiln.

Charcoal briquettes from bamboo: Charcoal is charred material, which has lost all moisture and most volatile contents in the production process. It is an energy-dense, light-weight, easy-to-handle, and convenient fuel, which burns without producing much visible smoke other than during lighting. These properties make it a preferred fuel especially in urban areas. However, there can be significant energy losses and emissions during charcoal production processes at the kiln. Charcoal, typically produced from wood, may also be produced from bamboo. Bamboo is a fast growing and renewable feedstock choice.

Non carbonized briquettes from sawdust: Non-carbonized briquettes are processed biomass material, which may be derived from sawdust. Processed biomass fuels like non-carbonized briquettes from sawdust are an increasingly common fuel source in developing countries. Non-carbonized briquettes can typically be used with many improved biomass stoves.

Non carbonized briquettes from crop residues: Non-carbonized briquettes are processed biomass material, which may be derived from crop residues. Crop residues, including include straws, stems, stalks, leaves, husks, shells, peels, etc., are the non-edible plant parts that are left in the field after harvest and excess residues are increasingly being viewed as a valuable resource. Processed biomass fuels like non-carbonized briquettes from crop residues are an increasingly common fuel source in developing countries. Non-carbonized briquettes can typically be used with many improved biomass stoves.

Wood pellets: Wood pellets are densified woody material. Processed biomass fuels like wood pellets are an increasingly common fuel source in developing countries. Pellets can typically be used with many improved biomass stoves.

Wood chips: Wood chips are processed woody material. Processed biomass fuels like wood chips are an increasingly common fuel source in developing countries. Wood chips can typically be used with many improved biomass stoves.

Ethanol from sugarcane: Ethanol is a clean liquid biofuel that can be made from a variety of feedstocks including sugar cane. Ethanol may be directly produced from sugarcane processing, or may be produced from molasses, a co-product of sugar production. Ethanol is a globally traded commodity.

Ethanol from wood: Ethanol is a clean liquid biofuel that can be made from a variety of feedstocks. Many new feedstocks are under development, such as ethanol from sawdust. This study uses ethanol from forest residues as a surrogate for ethanol from sawdust. Ethanol is a globally traded commodity.

Biogas from dung: Biogas is a methane rich gas produced through the anaerobic (without air) digestion of organic wastes. It can be generated from animal and kitchen wastes, as well as some crop residues. This study investigates biogas from cattle dung produced in small scale household digesters. For cooking, biogas can be used directly in conventional low-pressure gas burners.

LPG: Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a comparatively clean-burning, portable, sustainable, and efficient fuel. LPG is a co-product of natural gas and crude oil production and usually consists of a mixture of propane and butane for standard heating and cooking purposes. Its unique properties make it a versatile energy source – it is a multi-purpose energy source with many applications, is portable, and can be used virtually anywhere in the world.

Kerosene: Kerosene, also called paraffin in some countries, is a liquid product of crude oil with a high energy density. Kerosene is widely used in urban households for cooking, heating, and lighting. However, the World Health Organization discourages household use of kerosene, because of the high risk of burns, poisoning, and deaths.

Natural Gas: Natural gas is extracted and modeled as transported via long-distance pipeline. Consumers need to be connected to a natural gas pipeline to use this fuel choice. Natural gas is a comparatively clean-burning, sustainable, and efficient fuel.

DME: Dimethyl ether (DME) is a product of coal gasification, and is available in gaseous form in bottles. DME can be combusted in traditional gas stoves.

Hard coal: Coal is a black, solid, carbon-rich material found underground and is among the most prevalent fossil fuels. In the household energy sector, coal is used for cooking and heating in countries with abundant coal resources.

Electricity: Electricity is clean and efficient at the point of use. The overall lifecycle cleanliness and efficiency depends on the energy source (e.g. coal, gas, hydropower, nuclear, oil, solar, wind). Using electricity for cooking requires connection to the country's grid system, which varies widely between rural and urban areas in developing countries.

Crop residue: Crop residues, including include straws, stems, stalks, leaves, husks, shells, peels, etc., are the non-edible plant parts that are left in the field after harvest and excess residues are increasingly being viewed as a valuable resource. In the developing world, most crop residues that are used for fuel are in their natural state with some minimal pre-treatment like manual drying and cutting. Unprocessed crop residues are typically combusted in a low efficiency traditional stove.

Dung cake: The dung of stall fed animals (e.g. cattle and buffaloes) are converted into dung cake by mixing the manually collected dung with the residual feed (e.g., straw, wood chips). Dung cake is typically combusted in a low efficiency traditional mud stove.

  1. Sudha Setty (2014)
  2. Gov. of India (2014)
  3. Kojima et al (2011)
  4. ESMAP (2002)
  5. Barnes et al (2014)
  6. GACC (2014d)
  7. Sudha Setty (2014)
  8. Ibid.
  9. Ibid.
  10. Barnes et al. (2014)
  11. ESMAP (2002)
  12. UNDP (2003)
  13. Barnes et al. (2014)
  14. WLPGA (2014)
  15. ESMAP (2002)
  16. Bhojvaid et al. (2014)
  17. Pandey (2011)
  18. Kojima et al. (2011)
  19. Ibid.
  20. Lambe and Atteridge (2012)
  21. WLPGA (2014)
  22. Ibid.
  23. Ibid.
  24. NARI (2014)
  25. Ibid.
  26. WLPGA (2014)
  27. ESMAP (2002)
  28. Bhojvaid, et al. (2014)
  29. ESMAP (2006)
  30. Singh and Gundimeda (2014)
  31. Barnes et al. (2014)
  32. Parikh (2011)
  33. Barnes et al (2014)
  34. Singh and Gundimeda (2014)
  35. ESMAP (2006)
  36. Singh and Gundimeda (2014)
  37. UNDP (2011)
  38. WLPGA (2014)
  39. ESMAP (2006)
  40. Barnes et al. (2014)
  41. ESMAP (2006)
  42. Bhojvaid, et al (2014)
  43. WLPGA (2014)
  44. Ibid.
  45. GACC (2014d)
  46. Setty (2015)
  47. WLPGA (2014)
  48. GACC, 2014d
  49. ESMAP (2002)
  50. Setty (2015)
  51. GACC (2013a-b)
  52. WLPGA (2014)
FACIT users are cautioned that small differences in fuel system results should not be interpreted as conclusive proof that the impact of fuels are significantly different. The user is also urged to keep in mind that the results are intended for use as directional guidance to identify options that have the most potential for minimizing impacts based on the best currently available data. Detailed information on the methodology, assumptions, limitations, and references used to derive these results are provided in the

Report's Appendix.

Total Energy Demand: The total energy demand indicator accounts for the total usage of non-renewable fuels (natural gas, petroleum, coal, and nuclear) and renewable fuels (such as biomass and hydro). Energy is tracked based on the heating value of the fuel utilized from point of extraction, with all energy values summed together and reported on a megajoules (MJ) basis. Energy accounted for in this indicator includes not only the energy at point of cooking, but also the energy to extract, produce, and distribute the cooking fuel.

Net Energy Demand: Net energy demand is equivalent to the total energy demand indicator, but with the final energy delivered to the pot subtracted from the overall energy impacts. The total energy demand indicator, reported on a MJ basis, accounts for the total usage of non-renewable fuels (natural gas, petroleum, coal, and nuclear) and renewable fuels (such as biomass and hydro).

Global Climate Change Potential (100a): The global climate change potential (GCCP) impact category represents the heat trapping capacity of greenhouse gases (GHGs) over a 100-year time horizon. All GHGs are characterized to kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's 2013 5th Assessment Report global warming potentials. Important emissions characterized in this indicator include CO2, CH4, and N2O. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are also characterized, although these pollutants are typically released at much smaller quantities in the cooking fuel supply chain relative to the other GHGs.

Black Carbon and Short-Lived Climate Pollutants: Black carbon (BC), formed by incomplete combustion of fossil and bio-based fuels, is the carbon component of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 that most strongly absorbs light and thus has potential short-term (e.g., 20-year) radiative forcing effects (i.e., potential to contribute to climate warming). Organic carbon (OC) is also a carbon component of PM and possesses light-scattering properties typically resulting in climate cooling effects. PM from the cookstove sector is typically released with criteria pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur oxides (SOx), which may result in additional warming impacts or exert a cooling effect on climate. This indicator characterizes all PM and co-emitted pollutants to BC equivalents depending on the relative magnitude of short-term warming or cooling impacts.

Particulate Matter Formation Potential: PM formation results in many negative health impacts, such as effects on breathing and respiratory systems, damage to lung tissue, cancer, and premature death. Primary pollutants (including PM2.5) and secondary pollutants (e.g., SOx and NOx) leading to PM formation are characterized here to kg PM10 equivalents based on the ReCiPe impact assessment method.

Fossil Fuel Depletion: Fossil fuel depletion captures the consumption of fossil fuels-primarily coal, natural gas, and crude oil. All fuels are normalized to kg oil equivalents based on the heating value of the fossil fuel and according to the ReCiPe impact assessment method.

Water Depletion: Water depletion results, in alignment with the ReCiPe impact assessment method, are based on the volume of freshwater inputs to the life cycle of the assessed fuels. Water may be used in the product, evaporated, or returned to the same or different water body or to land. If the water is returned to the same water body, it is assumed the water is returned at a degraded quality. Water consumption includes evaporative losses from establishing hydroelectric dams.

Terrestrial Acidification (Acid Rain): Terrestrial acidification potential quantifies the acidifying effect of substances on their environment. Important emissions leading to terrestrial acidification include SO2, NOx, and ammonia (NH3). Results are characterized to kg SO2 equivalents according to the ReCiPe impact assessment method.

Freshwater Eutrophication Potential (i.e., Excess Nutrients to Water Bodies): Freshwater eutrophication assesses the potential impacts from excessive load of macro-nutrients to the environment and eventual deposition in freshwater. Pollutants covered in this category are all P-based (e.g., phosphate, phosphoric acid, phosphorus), with results characterized to kg P equivalents based on the ReCiPe impact assessment method.

Photochemical Oxidant Formation Potential (i.e., Smog): The photochemical oxidant formation (i.e., smog formation) potential results determine the formation of reactive substances that cause harm to human health and vegetation. Results are characterized here to kg of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) equivalents according to the ReCiPe impact assessment method. Some key emissions leading to photochemical oxidant formation include CO, methane (CH4), NOx, NMVOCs, and SOx.

Total Energy Demand: The total energy demand indicator accounts for the total usage of non-renewable fuels (natural gas, petroleum, coal, and nuclear) and renewable fuels (such as biomass and hydro). Energy is tracked based on the heating value of the fuel utilized from point of extraction, with all energy values summed together and reported on a megajoules (MJ) basis. Energy accounted for in this indicator includes not only the energy at point of cooking, but also the energy to extract, produce, and distribute the cooking fuel.

Net Energy Demand: Net energy demand is equivalent to the total energy demand indicator, but with the final energy delivered to the pot subtracted from the overall energy impacts. The total energy demand indicator, reported on a MJ basis, accounts for the total usage of non-renewable fuels (natural gas, petroleum, coal, and nuclear) and renewable fuels (such as biomass and hydro).

Global Climate Change Potential (100a): The global climate change potential (GCCP) impact category represents the heat trapping capacity of greenhouse gases (GHGs) over a 100-year time horizon. All GHGs are characterized to kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's 2013 5th Assessment Report global warming potentials. Important emissions characterized in this indicator include CO2, CH4, and N2O. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are also characterized, although these pollutants are typically released at much smaller quantities in the cooking fuel supply chain relative to the other GHGs.

Black Carbon and Short-Lived Climate Pollutants: Black carbon (BC), formed by incomplete combustion of fossil and bio-based fuels, is the carbon component of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 that most strongly absorbs light and thus has potential short-term (e.g., 20-year) radiative forcing effects (i.e., potential to contribute to climate warming). Organic carbon (OC) is also a carbon component of PM and possesses light-scattering properties typically resulting in climate cooling effects. PM from the cookstove sector is typically released with criteria pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur oxides (SOx), which may result in additional warming impacts or exert a cooling effect on climate. This indicator characterizes all PM and co-emitted pollutants to BC equivalents depending on the relative magnitude of short-term warming or cooling impacts.

Particulate Matter Formation Potential: PM formation results in many negative health impacts, such as effects on breathing and respiratory systems, damage to lung tissue, cancer, and premature death. Primary pollutants (including PM2.5) and secondary pollutants (e.g., SOx and NOx) leading to PM formation are characterized here to kg PM10 equivalents based on the ReCiPe impact assessment method.

Fossil Fuel Depletion: Fossil fuel depletion captures the consumption of fossil fuels-primarily coal, natural gas, and crude oil. All fuels are normalized to kg oil equivalents based on the heating value of the fossil fuel and according to the ReCiPe impact assessment method.

Water Depletion: Water depletion results, in alignment with the ReCiPe impact assessment method, are based on the volume of freshwater inputs to the life cycle of the assessed fuels. Water may be used in the product, evaporated, or returned to the same or different water body or to land. If the water is returned to the same water body, it is assumed the water is returned at a degraded quality. Water consumption includes evaporative losses from establishing hydroelectric dams.

Terrestrial Acidification (Acid Rain): Terrestrial acidification potential quantifies the acidifying effect of substances on their environment. Important emissions leading to terrestrial acidification include SO2, NOx, and ammonia (NH3). Results are characterized to kg SO2 equivalents according to the ReCiPe impact assessment method.

Freshwater Eutrophication Potential (i.e., Excess Nutrients to Water Bodies): Freshwater eutrophication assesses the potential impacts from excessive load of macro-nutrients to the environment and eventual deposition in freshwater. Pollutants covered in this category are all P-based (e.g., phosphate, phosphoric acid, phosphorus), with results characterized to kg P equivalents based on the ReCiPe impact assessment method.

Photochemical Oxidant Formation Potential (i.e., Smog): The photochemical oxidant formation (i.e., smog formation) potential results determine the formation of reactive substances that cause harm to human health and vegetation. Results are characterized here to kg of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) equivalents according to the ReCiPe impact assessment method. Some key emissions leading to photochemical oxidant formation include CO, methane (CH4), NOx, NMVOCs, and SOx.

Fuel Use: This indicator captures what percentage of the country population uses each fuel as their primary cooking fuel.

Fuel Cost: This indicator assesses the average cost to the end-users of purchasing each cooking fuel. Results are shown based on the cost to household per year in 2013 U.S. dollars.

Imports, Exports, Production, and Demand: The level of imports, exports, production, and demand of different fuels gives a sense of the relative importance of each fuel per country, as well as the degree to which a country is reliant on imports or able to meet its demand (assumed to be equal to current consumption) through domestic production. These data are not specific to cooking fuels, but instead capture all fuel uses.

Fuel Use: This indicator captures what percentage of the country population uses each fuel as their primary cooking fuel.

Fuel Cost: This indicator assesses the average cost to the end-users of purchasing each cooking fuel. Results are shown based on the cost to household per year in 2013 U.S. dollars.

Imports, Exports, Production, and Demand: The level of imports, exports, production, and demand of different fuels gives a sense of the relative importance of each fuel per country, as well as the degree to which a country is reliant on imports or able to meet its demand (assumed to be equal to current consumption) through domestic production. These data are not specific to cooking fuels, but instead capture all fuel uses.

Government Policies/Programs: The Government Policies/Programs indicator highlights any government policies, programs, subsidies, or general positions related to fuel and energy sector initiatives. When official positions are unavailable, anecdotal evidence of government activities is presented.

Purchase vs. Collection: The Purchase vs. Collection indicator provides data on fuel acquisition patterns at the household- and individual-level. Purchase data range over all the fuels in the study, and collection data focus on firewood and other traditional biomass fuels.

Protection & Safety: The Protection & Safety indicator assesses the perceived impacts to quality of life and wellbeing that may result from the transition to nontraditional cooking fuels. This indicator focuses primarily on the benefits of not having to manually gather firewood. It also presents anecdotal evidence on fuel-use concerns, such as canister explosions.

Time & Drudgery: The Time & Drudgery indicator addresses the time spent collecting and cooking with various fuels with a particular focus on impacts to women and children.

Government Policies/Programs: The Government Policies/Programs indicator highlights any government policies, programs, subsidies, or general positions related to fuel and energy sector initiatives. When official positions are unavailable, anecdotal evidence of government activities is presented.

Purchase vs. Collection: The Purchase vs. Collection indicator provides data on fuel acquisition patterns at the household- and individual-level. Purchase data range over all the fuels in the study, and collection data focus on firewood and other traditional biomass fuels.

Protection & Safety: The Protection & Safety indicator assesses the perceived impacts to quality of life and wellbeing that may result from the transition to nontraditional cooking fuels. This indicator focuses primarily on the benefits of not having to manually gather firewood. It also presents anecdotal evidence on fuel-use concerns, such as canister explosions.

Time & Drudgery: The Time & Drudgery indicator addresses the time spent collecting and cooking with various fuels with a particular focus on impacts to women and children.

Social & Gender Considerations

Select an indicator and click View Considerations to display a summary of social and gender considerations related to fuel use in the selected country. Click View All Considerations to review considerations for all indicators.




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Resources

Comparative Analysis of Fuels for Cooking: Life Cycle Environmental Impacts and Economic and Social Considerations Indicator Descriptions General Links

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